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Blood in the Stools: Causes, Related Symptoms, and Treatment

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Discovering blood in the stools can be a disconcerting experience, prompting individuals to seek answers about the potential causes, associated symptoms, and available treatment options. Hematochezia, the medical term for the presence of bright red blood in the stool, can arise from a variety of conditions, ranging from benign to more serious issues.

Understanding hematochezia is crucial to deciphering its potential implications. This manifestation occurs as bright red blood in the stools, indicating bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Unlike darker, tarry stools associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the blood in hematochezia is often fresh and unaltered by digestion.

Common Causes of Hematochezia


Swollen blood vessels in the rectum or anus can cause bleeding during bowel movements, often accompanied by itching and pain.

Symptoms: Itching, pain, and the presence of bright red blood on toilet paper or in the toilet bowl after bowel movements.

Anal Fissures

Tears in the lining of the anal canal, often caused by straining during bowel movements or constipation.

Symptoms: Intense pain during bowel movements and bright red blood on the surface of the stool.

Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

Small pouches (diverticula) in the walls of the colon can become inflamed or infected.

Symptoms: Abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, and hematochezia in the case of diverticulitis.


Inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by infections.

Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and blood in the stools in severe cases.

Colorectal Polyps and Cancer

Abnormal growths in the colon or rectum that can bleed.

Symptoms: Changes in bowel habits, unintentional weight loss, and fatigue.

Less Common Causes

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)

Chronic conditions like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis cause inflammation in the digestive tract.

Symptoms: Abdominal pain, diarrhea with mucus, and rectal bleeding in the case of ulcerative colitis.


Abnormal blood vessel formation in the gastrointestinal tract, often affecting the colon.

Symptoms: Recurrent episodes of bright red blood in the stools.

Ischemic Colitis

Reduced blood flow to the colon, leading to inflammation and potential bright-red or maroon bleeding.

Symptoms: Severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood in the stools.

Gastrointestinal Infections

Infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites can result in gastrointestinal symptoms, including hematochezia.

Symptoms: Vary depending on the specific pathogen but may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Seeking medical attention in cases of hematochezia is imperative. Emergency situations, such as severe bleeding accompanied by dizziness, breathlessness, rapid heartbeat, and pale skin, require immediate medical intervention. 

Even if the bleeding is not severe, persistent or recurrent hematochezia warrants medical evaluation, especially if accompanied by changes in bowel habits.

Diagnostic Approaches

To identify the underlying cause of hematochezia, healthcare professionals employ various diagnostic approaches. A thorough medical history, including information about bowel habits, diet, and family history, helps narrow down potential causes. Physical examinations, including a digital rectal exam, assist in assessing the presence of rectal abnormalities.

Blood tests can provide insights into overall health, revealing signs of infection or anemia. Gastroscopies and colonoscopies, allowing direct visualization of the gastrointestinal system, are diagnostic tools for identifying sources of bleeding, such as colorectal polyps or cancer. 

Additionally, imaging studies, such as CT scans or angiography, may be employed to pinpoint the source of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

Treatment Approaches

Treatment for hematochezia depends on the underlying cause. For common causes like hemorrhoids and anal fissures, over-the-counter creams, ointments, and sitz baths can provide relief. Dietary changes, including increased fiber intake and hydration, may help prevent diverticulosis. Antibiotics are often prescribed for infections, and surgical removal may be necessary for colorectal polyps or cancer.

In the case of inflammatory bowel diseases, medications like anti-inflammatories, immune system modulators, and biologics may be prescribed. Lifestyle modifications, including dietary changes and stress management, can help manage symptoms and prevent flare-ups. For conditions like angiodysplasia, endoscopic therapy or medications to reduce bleeding may be recommended.

Patient-Centric Perspectives

Understanding how individuals experience and interpret hematochezia is crucial for healthcare professionals. For many, the discovery of blood in the stools can evoke anxiety and fear. Therefore, fostering open communication between patients and healthcare providers is essential. Encouraging individuals to share their concerns, symptoms, and any changes in their health can lead to more accurate diagnoses and tailored treatment plans.

Diagnostic Precision

Advancements in medical technology have significantly improved diagnostic precision for hematochezia. Endoscopies, for instance, have become more sophisticated, allowing healthcare professionals to not only identify sources of bleeding but also conduct therapeutic interventions during the procedure. Furthermore, the development of non-invasive imaging techniques provides alternative diagnostic avenues, particularly for individuals who may be hesitant to undergo more invasive procedures.

The Role of Preventive Care

In the realm of gastrointestinal health, preventive care plays a pivotal role. Regular screenings, especially for those at higher risk due to factors like age or family history, can aid in the early detection of colorectal polyps or cancer. Colonoscopies, in particular, are recommended for routine screening and are instrumental in preventing the progression of precancerous lesions.


In conclusion, blood in the stools is a symptom that warrants careful consideration and prompt medical attention. Understanding the potential causes, recognizing related symptoms, and seeking appropriate treatment are crucial steps in addressing hematochezia and its underlying conditions.


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