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Understanding Gastroscopy: When and Why It’s Needed

healthcare worker preparing a patient for surgery

Gastroscopy is a medical procedure that allows doctors to examine the lining of the upper part of the digestive system. This includes the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum. 

It is a crucial diagnostic tool used to identify and manage various gastrointestinal conditions. In this article, we will explore the importance of gastroscopy, when it is necessary, and what to expect during the procedure.

What is Gastroscopy?

Gastroscopy is a procedure where a flexible tube with a camera and light at its end, called an endoscope, is inserted through the mouth and guided down the throat to the stomach and duodenum. 

The camera transmits images to a monitor, allowing the doctor to visualize the internal structures of the upper GI tract in real-time. This procedure helps diagnose, monitor, and treat conditions affecting these areas.

Common Uses

Gastroscopy is primarily used to investigate symptoms such as persistent abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, and unexplained weight loss. It can also detect and assess various conditions, including ulcers, tumors, inflammation, celiac disease, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, gastroscopy can be used to perform therapeutic interventions, such as removing foreign objects, taking biopsies, or treating bleeding ulcers.

Indications for Gastroscopy

Persistent Gastrointestinal Symptoms

One of the most common reasons for a gastroscopy is persistent gastrointestinal symptoms that do not respond to standard treatments. These symptoms can include chronic heartburn, acid reflux, and upper abdominal pain. If these symptoms persist despite lifestyle changes and medication, a gastroscopy may be necessary to identify the underlying cause.

Unexplained Weight Loss

Unexplained weight loss can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as cancer or malabsorption syndromes. Gastroscopy allows doctors to directly visualize the upper GI tract and take biopsies if necessary to diagnose these conditions accurately.

Difficulty Swallowing

Difficulty swallowing, known as dysphagia, can result from various conditions, including esophageal strictures, tumors, or motility disorders. Gastroscopy helps to identify the cause of dysphagia and guide appropriate treatment.

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Uses

Detecting and Monitoring Ulcers

Gastroscopy is highly effective in detecting peptic ulcers, which are sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum. It allows doctors to assess the size and location of the ulcer and monitor healing over time. Additionally, gastroscopy can help determine if an ulcer is caused by an infection with Helicobacter pylori or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Identifying and Treating Bleeding

Gastroscopy is crucial in diagnosing the source of upper GI bleeding. It enables doctors to locate the bleeding site and apply treatments, such as cauterization or injection therapy, to stop the bleeding. This is particularly important in emergency situations where rapid intervention is needed.

Diagnosing Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Gastroscopy, along with biopsies of the duodenum, helps confirm the diagnosis by revealing characteristic changes in the intestinal lining.

What to Expect During a Gastroscopy


Before undergoing a gastroscopy, patients are usually advised to fast for at least six hours to ensure an empty stomach. This helps improve visibility and reduces the risk of complications. Patients should also inform their doctor about any medications they are taking, as some may need to be temporarily adjusted or stopped.

The Procedure

Gastroscopy is typically performed as an outpatient procedure, meaning patients can go home the same day. Sedation is commonly used to ensure comfort and relaxation during the procedure. Once sedated, the endoscope is gently inserted through the mouth and guided down the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The entire procedure usually takes around 15 minutes.

After the Procedure

Following the gastroscopy, patients are monitored until the effects of the sedation wear off. It is normal to experience mild throat discomfort and bloating, but these symptoms usually resolve quickly. Patients are advised to avoid eating or drinking until the sedation effects have completely worn off.

Risks and Complications

Common Risks

While gastroscopy is generally safe, it carries some risks, as with any medical procedure. Common side effects include a sore throat, bloating, and mild cramping. These symptoms are usually temporary and resolve on their own.

Rare Complications

Rare but serious complications include bleeding, infection, and perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. The risk of these complications is higher in therapeutic procedures or in individuals with certain medical conditions. It is essential to follow all pre- and post-procedure instructions provided by the healthcare team to minimize these risks.

Benefits of Gastroscopy

Accurate Diagnosis

One of the primary benefits of gastroscopy is its ability to provide an accurate diagnosis. By directly visualizing the upper GI tract and taking biopsies when necessary, doctors can make precise diagnoses and tailor treatment plans to the individual patient’s needs.

Early Detection of Serious Conditions

Gastroscopy can detect early signs of serious conditions, such as cancer, allowing for timely intervention and better treatment outcomes. Early detection is particularly important in gastrointestinal cancers, where prognosis significantly improves with early-stage diagnosis and treatment.

Therapeutic Interventions

In addition to diagnosis, gastroscopy allows for various therapeutic interventions. For instance, it can be used to remove polyps, dilate strictures, or treat bleeding ulcers, reducing the need for more invasive surgical procedures.


Gastroscopy is a valuable medical procedure that plays a critical role in diagnosing and managing a wide range of gastrointestinal conditions. By providing direct visualization of the upper GI tract, it allows for accurate diagnoses, early detection of serious conditions, and effective therapeutic interventions. Understanding when and why gastroscopy is needed can help individuals seek appropriate medical care and improve their health outcomes.

For anyone experiencing persistent gastrointestinal symptoms, unexplained weight loss, or difficulty swallowing, it is important to consult a healthcare professional to determine if a gastroscopy is necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly impact overall health and well-being, ensuring that any serious conditions are promptly addressed.

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